Secure coding with Ruby from the perspective of a system engineer (2)

Before I continue

For some of the pitfalls I mentioned in last post of this series, there were actually some real-world bugs caused by invalid checks to file paths, not only CVE-2018-14364, which I wrote a blog to explain months ago. I’ll reveal them in near future.

I was planning to write more about the common pitfalls at the end of the last post. Including glob, command injections and some often neglected dangerous functions, plus several network-related issues like IPv6. But I’ve changed my mind, I’m going to jump to the last part about how to find the vulnerable code snippets in a could be large code base, effectively. And then jump back to the pitfalls and verify the method to see how effective it could be.

How to search code

Source code auditing could be fun and beneficial at first, I learned a lot from the source code of GitLab and GitHub Enterprise and some other well-known projects. Through auditing their code from the very beginning to the end, I could see how they solve problems and how they create new mechanisms to protect their applications.

However, manual code auditing is time consuming. And spending weeks on it, I began to feel tired to look over similar code snippets, and this condition made me neglect probably valuable parts of the code. So I started to consider that whether and how to find a way to automate the most time consuming part of code auditing.

String matching

I used ag and grep to search in the code base, these tools are great for repositories in small scale. When you want to search a call to a specific function, and the target function has a considerably unique name. It could be as easy as the following search:

~/projects/gitlab-ce$ ag 'remove_symlinks'
lib/gitlab/import_export/file_importer.rb
23:        remove_symlinks
34:        remove_symlinks
66:      def remove_symlinks

the target function remove_symlinks only occurs in this file. The string match tool works perfectly here.

methods have same name

But ag doesn’t always work as we wish like that. The remove_symlinks is called in Gitlab::ImportExport::FileImporter#import, which is a public instance method.

      def import
        mkdir_p(@shared.export_path)
        mkdir_p(@shared.archive_path)

        remove_symlinks
        copy_archive
...
      ensure
        remove_import_file
        remove_symlinks
      end

What if we want to see who invokes this import function now?

$ grep import . -r | wc -l
13649

Word import occurs more than 10 thousand times in the code base.

$ fgrep '.import' . -r | wc -l
481

Even if we optimize the pattern, hundreds of lines of code is still not that acceptable.

And more importantly,

$ egrep 'def import$' . -r
./app/controllers/projects/project_members_controller.rb:  def import
./lib/gitlab/import_export/file_importer.rb:      def import

as a public instance method name, it’s almost impossible for a string matching tool to tell that project_members_controller_instance.import and file_importer_instance.import are totally different functions. Therefore that is really hard to filter out those we don’t want to see.

Dynamic (tainted) string

Methods that have same name in different classes is not the only problem. Consider we want to find all occurrences of eval with a potentially controllable argument, like eval(params[:code]). But for those invocations like eval('1+1'), the argument is static and not controllable at all, so I don’t want this to be output to the final result.

Someone might say, “that’s really easy, use /eval([”|’]/”. But what about the following cases:

eval params[:code] # Ruby allows function calls without parentheses
eval "result=#{params[:code]}" # String interpolation
eval("result=" + params[:code]) # String concatenation
eval \
params[:code] # One function call in multiple lines
...

I’m not a master of regular expressions, and I’m not going to be as it will probably cost more time for me to write and test the regular expressions than I do some manual auditing work as before.

AST matching

The problem of string matching tools is that they don’t really understand the code. Tools like grep expect the user to tell them, for example, what’s the pattern of a function call and which variable is of expected class and which is not. So, a string matching approach highly depends on the understanding and experience of the human who writes the pattern. I believe @matz has the ability to write some reliable regular expressions to solve the above questions, but he probably will not do this due to the existence of Ruby AST.

FYI, AST is for ‘Abstract Syntax Tree’

Rubocop

So, the point is, we need something who really understand the source code to read the code first, then process it to general lexical structures for the matching part to output the final result.

Fortunately, Rubocop is an open-source project which has done splendid work on static analyzing of Ruby. And it provides an extensive interface for users to create their own lexical matching rules.

The core of AST matching in Rubocop is ‘node pattern’. User can write a expected AST pattern and let Rubocop to find all matching patterns and output the location of the corresponding source code.

For example, to match a ‘dangerous (probably)’ call of eval, I can define a pattern like:

(send {nil? (const nil? :Kernel} :eval (!str ...))

pattern like this will match every direct call of eval or Kernel.eval where the argument is NOT a static string.

The output would be like

$ rubocop -r ./cops/tainted_eval.rb --only Custom test/test_tainted_eval.rb
Inspecting 1 file
C

Offenses:

test/test_tainted_eval.rb:5:1: C: Custom/TaintedEval: Found eval with tainted input
Kernel.eval var
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
test/test_tainted_eval.rb:6:1: C: Custom/TaintedEval: Found eval with tainted input
eval var
^^^^^^^^
test/test_tainted_eval.rb:7:1: C: Custom/TaintedEval: Found eval with tainted input
eval "test#{var}"
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
test/test_tainted_eval.rb:8:1: C: Custom/TaintedEval: Found eval with tainted input
eval \ ...
^^^^^^

1 file inspected, 4 offenses detected

where the file I used for test is:

# test/test_tainted_eval.rb
# safe
eval 'string_literal'

# vul
Kernel.eval var
eval var
eval "test#{var}"
eval \
  'result=' + @var

It successfully filters out the safe eval with a string literal and tells me that the left calls are probably dangerous with where they are.

Of course, the example above is just a trivial example while many causes are not considered. But what I want to express here is that with the static analysis approach, we can save a lot of time in code auditing by defining some well-designed patterns, without losing too many valuable parts and receiving also too many noises like we used to do with a string matching tool.

In the next part of this series, I’m going to show some examples about how Rubocop with custom cops was used during my latest code auditing trip. And It helped me to finally identified a remote code execution bug in Gitlab(CVE-2018-18649).

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